Sun, 24 Oct
Li B.-L., Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M. (2004)
Energy partitioning between different-sized organisms
and ecosystem stability. Ecology
, 85(7), 1811-1813.
full text (PDF, 60 Kb).
Tue, 6 Jul
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2004) Body size, energy
consumption and allometric scaling: a new dimension in the
diversity-stability debate. Ecological Complexity
full text (PDF, 374 Kb).
According to the biotic regulation theory, natural ecological communities
are organized such as to ensure maximum possible stability of their
environment. In this paper it is shown that this principle allows to
quantitatively predict patterns of energy partitioning among
differently-sized organisms in stable ecosystems. It is shown that
in stable ecosystems large animals are allowed to consume no more
than 1% of primary production. In the modern biosphere man
has exceeded this ecological quota by ten times.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2004)
Ontogenetic growth: models and theory. Ecological Modelling
full text (PDF, 260 Kb).
Modelling is widely spread in modern natural science. Models differ from
theories in that they include
immeasurable parameters and unknown dependencies between measurable
variables. These dependencies have therefore to be postulated, which is
commonly done by fitting the model to the available empirical data.
Thus, models are in their essence equivalent to tabulations
of relevant data having zero predictive power. The modelling approach
where the search for fundamental natural regularities is replaced by
formal fitting and computer simulations represents a serious, if not deadly,
disease of modern natural science. In this paper we illustrate the above
statements on the example of a popular ontogenetic growth model, which,
among other things, violates the energy conservation law.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G. (2004) On the dependence of speciation rates
on species abundance and characteristic population size. Journal of
, 29(1), 119-128.
full text (PDF, 108 Kb).
One of the widely spread postulates of modern biology is the statement
that the driving force of evolution is the adaptation of biological species
to changing environmental conditions. This statement contradicts the
biotic regulation theory. If it were true, one could expect that species
consisting of many individuals (e.g. bacteria with characteristic population
density of a million per cubic millilitre) would evolve faster than
species with a small number of individuals (e.g. mammals, 1 ind. per square km).
In simple words, it seems easier to find an organism well fitted to a new
environment if you choose among billions, rather than among a few,
individuals. It is easy to calculate that the rate of speciation would differ
by ten and more orders of magnitude among small numerous and large non-numerous
In this paper we analyze the available empirical data to show that
in reality all organisms speciate at approximately the same rate, the mean
time of species duration being of the order of several million years,
be that a unicell or vertebrate species. This confirms the biotic regulation
statement that evolution cannot be caused by changes of the environment,
the latter being itself under control of the biota.
To learn more about the significance of this paper to the biotic regulation
concept read Chapter 11 of Gorshkov et al. (2000)
Biotic regulation of the environment.
Sun, 29 Feb
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L., Losev K.S. (2004)
The Upper and Lower Ecological Limits of Specific Metabolic
Power of Different Organisms. Russian Journal of Ecology
full text (PDF, 420 Kb).
This paper continues a series of publications,
started by Makarieva, Gorshkov, and Li (2003)
and to be be continued by several papers currently in press and
under preparation. The ultimate goal of these papers is to introduce
the notions of universal maximum, minimum and optimum specific metabolic
rates and to show their fundamental implications for the organization
of ecological communities performing biotic regulation
(Gorshkov, 1981). To learn more about
this aspect of the biotic regulation studies read Chapters 1, 3 and 4
of Gorshkov et al. (2000) Biotic regulation of
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.V. (2004)
Revising the fundamentals of ecological knowledge: the biota-environment
interaction. Ecological Complexity, 1(1), 17-36.
full text (PDF, 320 Kb).
This publication summarizes our current understanding
of the biotic regulation concept and its relevance to global ecological
They are looking at us
Face-to-face with Lizard, Cricket, Little Skua and Toad.
Nature images presented at this website have been
recently included into the GOOGLE's database. Immeadiately we
noticed considerable interest in the images, manifested in high
rates of download. This gives us a pleasant impetus to further
develop this aesthetic feature of our website. However, we note,
here and elsewhere, that the biotic regulation concept justifies
the urgent necessity to conserve undisturbed ecosystems on a planetary
scale on the basis of strictly pragmatic reasoning backed up by
quantitative arguments. Whatever our personal subjective
attitude to nature (admiration, love, rejection, indifference,
ignorance etc.), the existence of globally important territories
occupied by undisturbed ecosystems is an objective and indispensable
condition of the personal survival of every human being and his or her
NEWS ARCHIVES: 2005