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Topical publications on biotic regulation
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Papers are in English unless otherwise stated. See also an extended list of publications arranged by date and books on biotic regulation. For extended texts of presentations of V.G. Gorshkov and A.M. Makarieva at the Open Science Conference "Challenges of a Changing Earth", 10-13 July, 2001, Amsterdam, see abstracts and publications under Sections IV and V.
The following publications give a general
outline of the biotic regulation concept and
its implications for the global change science.
Gorshkov V.G., Makar'eva A.M., Losev K.S. (2006) A strategy for the survival of the humanity is on agenda. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 76(2), 139-143, doi:10.1134/S1019331606020055. PDF (500 Kb, Russian). The authors discuss the most important fallacies in modern climatology and ecology and priorities in solving the problems of environment and nature protection.
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.V. (2004) Revising the fundamentals of ecological knowledge: the biota-environment interaction. Ecological Complexity, 1(1), 17-36, doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2003.09.002. Abstract, PDF (320 Kb). Copyright 2003 Elsevier B. V. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
We would recommend this paper as an up-to-date introduction to the biotic regulation concept.
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M., Mackey B., Gorshkov V.V. (2001) Biological theory and global change science. Global Change NewsLetter, 48, 11-14. PDF (0.3 Mb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M., Mackey B., Gorshkov V.V. (2002) How valid are the biological and ecological principles underpinning Global Change science? Energy & Environment, 13(3), 299-310. Abstract, PDF (500 Kb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makar'eva A.M. (2002) Changes in the global carbon cycle: Evidence from the measurements of O2/N2 in the atmosphere and CO2 partial pressure at the ocean-atmosphere boundary. Geochemistry International, 40(5), 472-480. Abstract, PDF (200 Kb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M. (1998) Impact of terrestrial and oceanic biota on the modern carbon and oxygen cycles. Ecological Chemistry, 7(2), 129-137. Abstract, PDF (electronic version, 240 Kb), PDF (offprint, 1.22 Mb).
Gorshkov V.G., Grassl H., Kondratyev K.Ya., Losev K.S. (1995) On the natural biological regulation of the environment. Environmental Conservation, 22(2), 170-174. Full text (PDF, 1.0 Mb).
The following publications deal with the genetic aspect of the biotic regulation concept. Information needed for the highly-organized process of biotic regulation is written in the genomes of natural biological species. The evidence presented suggests that the observed genetic polymorphism of natural species is a consequence of a finite sensitivity of the process of natural selection, which allows a certain number of genetic defects to remain unnoticed in the course of competitive interaction of individuals and, consequently, to be preserved in the population.
Genetic polymorphism is thus interpreted not as an adaptive potential
of a species (see here
on the conflict between the biotic regulation and
genetic adaptation concepts),
but as a permissible level of erosion of the meaningful
genetic information of species. Instead of being continuously changing in a certain direction,
the genetic information of a species fluctuates randomly around the normal
genome during the whole period of the species' existence,
the magnitude of fluctuations being determined by the limit of
sensitivity of natural selection.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G. (2004) On the dependence of speciation rates on species abundance and characteristic population size. Journal of Biosciences, 29(1), 119-128. Abstract, PDF (110 Kb). Copyright Indian Academy of Sciences.
Makarieva A.M. (2001) Variance of protein heterozygosity in different species of mammals with respect to the number of loci studied. Heredity, 87(1), 41-51. Abstract, PDF (0.4 Mb), dataset (HTML, 0.1 Mb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makar'eva A.M. (1997) Dependence of heterozygosity on body weight in mammals. Doklady Biological Sciences, 355, 384-386. PDF (127 Kb).
It is shown, based on the analysis of the physical behaviour of the terrestrial greenhouse effect, that the climate with an extensive liquid hydrosphere like that of Earth is physically unstable with respect to spontaneous transitions to either of the two stable but life-incompatible states, that of complete evaporation of the hydrosphere with global mean surface temperature higher than +400°C and that of complete glaciation of the planet with temperature lower than -80° C.The available paleodata testify for a stable maintenance of the values of global mean surface temperatures within the interval 5-25°C during the last seven hundred million years. In the absence of a physical mechanism that could ensure such a stability, the observed sustainability of the life-compatible values of surface temperature can be only explained by accepting the existence of biotic regulation of the global cycle of water (the major greenhouse gas on Earth) and surface temperature.
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M. (2002) Greenhouse effect dependence on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse substances and the nature of climate stability on Earth. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2, 289-337. Abstract, PDF and discussion.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Pujol T. (2003) Height of convective layer in planetary atmospheres with condensable and non-condensable greenhouse substances. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 3, 6701-6720. Abstract, PDF and discussion.
Makar'eva A.M., Gorshkov V.G. (2001) The greenhouse effect and the stability of the global mean surface temperature. Doklady Earth Sciences, 377(2), 210-214. PDF (173 Kb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M. (2001) Diffusion of thermal photons in the atmosphere, pp. 141-142 in: Dakhno L.G. (Ed.) PNPI XXX (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute XXX-th Anniversary). Scientific Highlights. Theoretical Physics Division. PNPI, Gatchina, 145 pp., ISBN 5-86763-043-9. PDF (0.1 Mb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makarieva A.M. (2000) Environmental safety, climate stability and the non-perturbed biota. Global Change NewsLetter, 43, 24-25. PDF (0.1 Mb). recommended as introductory reading
Makarieva A.M. (2000) Biotically maintained stability of the Earth's mean global surface temperature. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Preprint No. 2384, 42 pp. PDF (0.4 Mb).
We point out that the quantitative gap between the level of orderliness inherent to living systems and that of open dynamic systems of physical nature 'self-organized' at the expense of external energy fluxes reaches twenty four orders of magnitude. The environmental fluxes of free energy being virtually disordered as compared to living systems, the orderliness of life cannot be maintained by any physical process. To counteract the spontaneous decay of the highly ordered state of life, the living matter must be divided into a sufficiently large number of equivalent objects (individuals), among which a competitive interaction is switched on. As soon as the level of orderliness of any given object diminishes below the sensitivity of competitive interaction, such an object loses competitiveness and is replaced by a copy of a normal object retaining the initial high level of order. Such a mechanism of maintenance of order is unique to living matter and differentiates it from the inanimate world.
We also show that the biotic regulation mechanism cannot be replaced by
technology, as far as the information processing capacity of the civilisation
is twenty orders of magnitude lower than that used by the natural biota
for environmental control.
Gorshkov V.V., Gorshkov V.G., Danilov-Danil'yan V.I., Losev K.S., Makar'eva A.M. (2002) Information in the animate and inanimate worlds. Russian Journal of Ecology, 33(3), 149-155. Abstract, PDF (145 Kb).
Gorshkov V.G., Makar'eva A.M. (2001) On the possibility of physical self-organization of biological and ecological systems. Doklady Biological Sciences, 378, 258-261. PDF (123 Kb).
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G. (2000) Order in physical and living systems: Principal differences in quantitative characteristics and mechanisms of maintenance do not allow a similar description. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Preprint No. 2388, 17 pp. Abstract, PDF (1.3 Mb).
The biotic regulation concept predicts that natural ecological
communities of species should be organized in a manner ensuring their
maximum environmental stability. This general principle allows to explain
major allometric patterns of distribution of energy fluxes observed in natural
ecological communities, in particular, the decline of the share of
consumption of primary productivity with growing body size of
the community's heterotrophs.
So far most part of the
original publications on this topic are in Russian.
For compilations of the results obtained, and
to see how these studies are related to the biotic regulation
is referred to Chapters 1 (HTML, 100 Kb),
3 (PDF, 2.5 Mb)
4 (PDF, 2.1 Mb)
of Gorshkov et al. (2000) Biotic regulation of the environment. Key issue
of global change. Springer, London, see also the book's
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L., Chown S.L. (2006) Size- and temperature-independence of minimum life-supporting metabolic rates. Functional Ecology, 20, 83-96, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2006.01070.x. Abstract, PDF (proofs, 350 Kb), supplementary data (WinWord). Copyright 2006 The Authors Journal Compilation; Copyright 2006 British Ecological Society. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Energetics of the smallest: Do bacteria breathe at the same rate as whales? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biological Series, 272, 2219-2224, doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3225. Abstract, PDF (submitted manuscript, 220 Kb). Copyright 2005 The Royal Society. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Biochemical universality of living matter and its metabolic implications. Functional Ecology, 19, 547-557, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2005.01005.x. Abstract, PDF (200 Kb, proofs). Copyright 2005 British Ecological Society. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Revising the distributive networks models of West, Brown and Enquist (1997) and Banavar, Maritan and Rinaldo (1999): Metabolic inequity of living tissues provides clues for the observed allometric scaling rules. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 237, 291-301, doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.04.016. Abstract, PDF (270 Kb). Copyright 2005 Elsevier Ltd. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biological Series, 272, 2325-2328, doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3223. Abstract, PDF (submitted manuscript, 150 Kb). Copyright 2005 The Royal Society. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Temperature-associated upper limits to body size in terrestrial poikilotherms. OIKOS, 111(3), 425-436. Abstract, PDF (330 Kb, proofs). Copyright 2005 OIKOS. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2005) Why do population density and inverse home range scale differently with body size? Implications for ecosystem stability. Ecological Complexity, 2, 259-271, doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2005.04.006. Abstract, PDF (210 Kb). Copyright 2005 Elsevier B. V. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2004) Body size, energy consumption and allometric scaling: a new dimension in the diversity-stability debate. Ecological Complexity, 1(2), 139-175, doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2004.02.003. Abstract, PDF (380 Kb). Copyright 2004 Elsevier B. V. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Makarieva A.M., Gorshkov V.G., Li B.-L. (2003) A note on metabolic rate dependence on body size in plants and animals. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 221(2), 301-307, doi:10.1006/jtbi.2003.3185. Abstract, PDF (140 Kb). Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
Gorshkov V.G. (1985) Natural selection of communities and the stability of biogeochemical cycles. In: J. Mlikovsky and V.J.A. Novak (Eds.) Evolution and Morphogenesis, pp. 787-794. Academia, Praha. Abstract, PDF (240 Kb).
The following publications are in Russian with English abstracts: